The Knights Templar is a monastic order that marked history. They were the first warrior monks to appear, and they also inspired the modern banking system. The Templars are strongly present in many novels and movies in the 21st century. Understanding the Templars' history is getting the gist of the history of religions, especially in Western Europe.
Many important dates shaped the narrative of the order. In 1000 B.C, the Temple of King Solomon was built in Jerusalem. In 1119, the order was founded by Hugues de Paynes when King Baldwin granted a small group of knights a place to live and to be active within the sacred site. In 1128, the co-founders of the institution Bernard de Clairvaux and Hugues de Payens wrote "the Templar Rule," which is the behavior code of the monastic order. It comprises rules and regulations that organize the lives of all members.
The order first went by The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon. They weren't recognized until 1139 when the Pope issued a ball that endorsed the Templars and gave them immunity from all taxes and authorities, except for the Pope's. It was a significant event in the history of the order.
In 1187, the Templars fought along with the Crusaders in the Battle of Hattin against Saladin and his army. The battle ended in favor of the Muslims, who inflicted serious casualties on the Templars. During the third Crusade, the Templars captured the port of Acre in 1191, which became their new headquarters in the Middle East.
Friday, October 13th, 1307, was the most dreadful day for the Templars. The Grand Master, 60 senior knights, and several other Templars were arrested by Phillip IV, king of France, under heresy allegations. The order was no longer active in Jerusalem and Western Europe. In Portugal, the monarch refused to believe the accusations made against the order and offered them protection under a new name.